Animated Creature via COLLADA¶
This tutorial shows how to get an animated creature from Blender to OpenMW using the COLLADA format. It does not cover using Blender itself, as there are many better resources for that. The focus is solely on the animation pipeline and its specific requirements. Most of them are related to how the model, rig, and animations are set up in Blender.
This tutorial builds upon the Static Model via COLLADA tutorial. All fundamentals of exporting static objects apply to animated ones as well.
To use the Blender to OpenMW pipeline via COLLADA, you will need the following.
The Land Racer¶
The creature, and its revelant files, are available from the Example Suite repository. This should be useful for further study of how to set things up in case this tutorial is not clear on any particular thing.
data/meshes/land_racer.dae– exported model
data/meshes/land_racer.txt– animation textkeys
data/textures/land_racer.dds– diffuse texture
data/textures/land_racer_n.dds- normal map
source_assets/land_racer.blend– source file configured as this tutorial specifies
The model needs to be a child of the rig and have an Armature modifier asigned. Bone weights are limited to a maximum of 4 bones per vertex. The model needs to have default location, rotation, and scale.
Collision is set up with an empty named
collision with a
single child mesh. OpenMW will use the bounding box of this mesh for physics
collision shape so a simple, cuboid mesh is enough. If no collision shape is
defined, the bounding box of the animated model will be used instead.
Armature / Rig¶
Only a single rig object should be included in the exported file. Exporting multiple rigs is not reliably supported and can lead to errors.
The rig needs to be structured in a specific way. There should be a single top
bone in the rig’s hierarchy, the root bone named
Bip01. The name is
required so OpenMW recognizes and uses it for root movement. For this same
reason, the bone should be by default aligned with the world. The root bone
needs to have its
Deform flag enabled.
Below the root bone, the bones are divided into two branches. One branch
contains the deform bones which get included in the final exported file. These
are otherwise not animated directly but inherit motion from other bones via
constraints. They have their
Deform flag enabled. For creatures, the
deform bones can be named as you desire and don’t need to follow the naming
convention used for NPC and player models.
The other branch holds control and helper bones that enable comfortable
animation in Blender, but are neither required nor included in the exported
file. They have their
Deform flag disabled. How these bones are
structured is a big separate topic on its own that this tutorial does not cover,
but you can study the provided source file.
A creature in OpenMW is expected to have a set of animations to display its various actions. These animations are recognized and used by their name.
|Animation name||Possible variations||Purpose|
|attack1||attack2, attack3||The creature performs an attack|
|death1||death2 - death5||The creature dies while upright|
|hit1||hit2 - hit5||The creature is hit in combat|
|idle||idle2 - idle9||Flavour animations when the creature does nothing in particular|
|knockout||/||When creature’s fatigue goes below 0 and it staggers to the ground|
|deathknockout||/||The creature dies while knocked out|
|knockdown||/||When the creatures receives a heavy hit in combat or lands from a considerable height|
|deathknockdown||/||The creature dies while knocked down|
|runforward||/||Moving forward fast|
|walkforward||/||Moving forward at regular speed|
Animating in Blender is done at 30 fps. Specific to how OpenMW works, each exported animation needs to take a unique range on the timeline. To achieve this, actions are placed as strips in the NLA editor with an obligatory one frame gap between them.
NLA strips affect the exported result based on their scale, name, frame range, repetition, or any other factor affecting the end animation result. It’s What you see is what you get principle.
Root movement is required for animations such as
runforward and is likely to work for other animations if needed.
Root movement works only when the root bone is named
The exported COLLADA file requires a corresponding textkeys file for OpenMW to
properly read the animations. Textkeys is a
.txt file containing animation
definitions and events. At a minimum it needs to include at least animation
stop values in a format as shown in this example.
idle: start 0.033333 idle: stop 2.033333 walkforward: start 2.066667 walkforward: stop 3.666667 runforward: start 3.7 runforward: stop 4.433333 attack1: start 4.466667 attack1: stop 5.433333 ...
The textkeys file is placed in the same folder as the model and matches the model’s name.
While it’s possible to write it by hand, OpenMW’s Collada Exporter offers a
convenient option to export a textkeys file based on Blender’s timeline markers
(not to be confused with pose markers which are contained per action). What you
need to do is create properly named timeline markers for each animation and
Export Textkeys option in the exporter.
In the example of
walkforward the timeline markers should be named
walkforward: start and
For animated models, use the following exporter settings. Before export, select
all objects you wish to include in the exported file and have the
Objects option enabled. Without this, the exporter could fail.
Getting the Model In-game¶
Once the Land Racer is exported, both of its
.txt files need to
be placed in the correct folder where OpenMW will read it. Afterwards in
OpenMW-CS, it should be visible in the Assets->Meshes table and can be assigned
Model/Animation field of a creature.